Melatonin: The Sleep Hormone Derived from Serotonin
Many individuals are curious about the relationship between serotonin and melatonin and why it’s crucial for sleep. This article explores both neurohormones and how optimizing their production naturally or through supplements can aid in achieving better sleep.
Melatonin Is Made from Serotonin
One of the most common discussions with clients revolves around sleep and its influences, including light, timing, food, exercise, and importantly, mood. Clients are often surprised to learn about the connection between serotonin and melatonin and its significance for sleep.
The revelation that melatonin, the “sleep and antioxidant hormone,” is actually produced from serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, often elicits astonishment. The typical question that arises is, “Does this mean if I lack serotonin, I won’t be able to produce melatonin?” The answer: yes! Hence, optimizing serotonin production is crucial when aiming to optimize melatonin production and sleep.
In reality, medication or supplements aren’t necessary for producing these chemicals if one knows how to leverage diet and lifestyle. However, if supplements are taken to ensure adequate serotonin and melatonin levels, there are right and wrong ways to do so.
What is Melatonin and How is it Produced?
Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland, with several key functions including acting as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, which may be linked to physical recovery and longevity. It also assists individuals in biologically adapting to seasonal changes and even helps mitigate jet lag. Additionally, it’s essential for quality nighttime sleep.
Located in the brain’s hemispheres, the pineal gland’s primary role in mammals is regulating the sleep/wake cycle. It’s stimulated by photoreceptor cells in the retina. When exposed to light, a chain of events from your eyes to the spinal cord and then to the brain creates the circadian rhythm. The pineal gland works in tandem with your circadian rhythm, producing chemicals that either keep you awake and alert or calm and ready for rest.
Many people aren’t aware that their circadian rhythm is literally linked to their environment and varies depending on temperature and light exposure.
Inside the pineal gland, magic happens. (Just kidding, it’s science!) The pineal gland takes in serotonin and, with the help of enzymes, converts it into N-acetylserotonin. These enzymes are stimulated by darkness. The conversion cannot occur if your eyes are exposed to light.
If it continues to stay dark, N-acetylserotonin turns into melatonin, which helps induce sleep. The more serotonin you have, the more melatonin your brain can produce under suitable conditions.
In conclusion, if your brain has enough serotonin, you can use dim lighting to convert it into melatonin, which will help you fall asleep.
What is Serotonin?
Serotonin is a neurohormone necessary for healthy brain function. In recent years, serotonin has become a “popular” hormone due to the prevalence of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly prescribed for depression. These medications highlight serotonin’s importance in balancing and regulating mood.
Serotonin is a hormone made up of the amino acid tryptophan and vitamins B12, folate, and BH4 (tetrahydrobiopterin, produced using folate and vitamin B12).
Some of these vitamins can be easily obtained from food. For instance, folate is abundant in black-eyed peas, spinach, and beef liver, while B12 is typically found in beef liver, various seafood, nutritional yeast, milk, and yogurt. Tryptophan, an amino acid, is found in protein-rich foods. If you’re vegan or vegetarian, increasing your intake of protein-rich foods can be beneficial to ensure sufficient tryptophan intake.
You can take L-tryptophan as a dietary supplement or, even better, a form of tryptophan known as 5-hydroxytryptophan or 5-HTP. 5-HTP is one step closer to serotonin than L-tryptophan. Clinical studies indicate that 5-HTP provides more effective serotonin conversion and better outcomes in mood elevation and sleep improvement.
If you decide to take supplements, be sure to consult a doctor first, as 5-HTP may interact with many medications and even cause serotonin syndrome.
|Melatonin Production Process
|Melatonin, the hormone crucial for sleep, is produced from serotonin. Serotonin, in turn, is synthesized from tryptophan and various vitamins. The pineal gland converts serotonin to melatonin in the absence of light.
|Importance of Melatonin for Sleep
|Melatonin serves as a potent antioxidant, helps regulate circadian rhythms, and induces sleep.
|Serotonin’s Role in Mood Regulation
|Serotonin, synthesized from tryptophan and vitamins, plays a vital role in mood stabilization. Low serotonin levels are associated with depression and mood disorders.
|Dietary Sources of Serotonin Precursors
|Foods rich in tryptophan, folate, and B12 contribute to serotonin production. Examples include black-eyed peas, spinach, beef liver, various seafood, milk, and yogurt.
|Supplements for Serotonin Enhancement
|L-tryptophan and 5-HTP are popular supplements for boosting serotonin levels. However, caution is advised, as 5-HTP may interact with medications and cause serotonin syndrome.
1. How is melatonin produced in the body?
Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin in the pineal gland. In darkness, serotonin is converted to N-acetylserotonin, which then transforms into melatonin, inducing sleep.
2. What are the functions of melatonin?
Melatonin serves as an antioxidant, regulates circadian rhythms, helps adapt to seasonal changes, and promotes quality sleep.
3. What role does serotonin play in mood regulation?
Serotonin, derived from tryptophan and vitamins, is crucial for stabilizing mood. Low serotonin levels are linked to depression and mood disorders.
4. What foods contain serotonin precursors?
Foods rich in tryptophan, folate, and B12, such as black-eyed peas, spinach, beef liver, seafood, milk, and yogurt, contribute to serotonin production.
5. Are there supplements to boost serotonin levels?
Yes, L-tryptophan and 5-HTP are commonly used supplements. However, it’s essential to consult a doctor before taking them due to potential interactions and side effects.
6. How does light exposure affect melatonin production?
Exposure to light inhibits melatonin production. Darkness stimulates the conversion of serotonin to melatonin in the pineal gland.
7. Can serotonin supplements interact with medications?
Yes, 5-HTP supplements may interact with various medications and potentially cause serotonin syndrome. It’s crucial to consult a healthcare professional before taking them.